Should – to the capital of the former

Should I Stay or Should I Go?

Russia has
become a huge donor for labor migrants from Central Asia. Low wages and
unemployment in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have made people to
travel to the North – to the capital of the former Soviet Union –  in which these nations were connected by the
same language and history, shared one land and had not frontiers between each
other. Nowadays, these states have become independent since the collapse of the
USSR, that they belonged to, a little more than some 25 years ago. Currently, Russian
Federation is facing a big demographical crisis, especially the declining of
the working-age group. Thus, there is a need to involve a cheap working class
from abroad. Due to having a visa-free regime between those states, the Russian
state is easily accessible for the citizens of Central Asia. However, the
immigrants should always extend and prolong their staying in order to obtain
the right to work in Russia. Some experts on demographic and migration trends of
Russian Federation claim that there is a need for labor migration, however, these
views are not always shared by Russian citizens in general. According to Myhre
(2012), the migration corridor that is formed between Russia and the citizens
of Central Asian countries is considered one of the largest in the present
world and among them Tajikistan is considered the second in terms of the amount
of citizens residing in Russia (p.12). The Tajik labor migrants that strive to
migrate for Russia to find a new life, always have a bad economic situation in
their home country that causes for unemployment, salaries and poverty, which
makes them dissatisfied with a state and authority itself. Although economic
problems remain the main reason for migration, some migrate for political and
environmental reasons, too.  

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The economic
situation that causes many issues in a country, such as lack of jobs, low wages
and poverty, remains the main reason for leaving Tajikistan. Therefore, if we
talk about the migrants that come for the economic reasons, we should use the
term – economic migration. In economic migration, the migrant is usually a
young man or a young female in search of a temporary job and intending to
return home once certain savings have been reached. (Myhre, 2012, p.16)
Furthermore, they are convinced that in their home country these conveniences
are seen less. The economic factors of Tajikistan have not been stable for more
than 20 years already. During these years it has not reached its zenith even in
decreasing of one of these problems. On the one hand, the government is not
able to contribute toward its unstable factors of economy that the population
could be engaged in making them better. On the other hand, Russia provides the
migrants with more opportunities and believes that they serve to make the
country more attractive. Therefore, the state’s contribution to the economy and
its issues might go in favor of reducing the unemployment and poverty.

In Tajikistan,
there are many unemployment because the lacking of work field. Unemployment is
considered a major problem not only in Tajikistan, but the countries of Central
Asia. Many Tajik migrants complain of not having a good environment to work in
their job fields or having a little salary for doing so. Tajik government does not
create reliable work fields especially for the youth in the country. Encouraging
the Tajik government to create jobs for its youth is highly unrealistic,
because most men that migrate from the country are young people with well
reasoning skills. Unemployment levels largely explain the country’s migration
trends. In 2016, Tajikistan had the highest unemployment rate in the region at
12.6 % and the number of unemployed citizens reached 243,000 in Tajikistan,
however these numbers were increasing over time (Ryazantsev, 2016, p.3). Russia
as a developed country, for their part, has a need in many economic and social
sectors of its regions. Only by having different sort of jobs with higher salaries
and a better standard for living, Russia attracts more young labor migrants of
Tajikistan. That is why, many unemployed from developing countries move to any
developed countries in order to find a better job and a potential for
employment. Finding a job in
Russia will probably lead Tajik migrants to have a higher salary and a modern
working environment. 

Nevertheless, if a country might succeed
in dealing with a high rate of job
shortages and creates enough jobs, it does not imply that the citizens will get
high salaries. Low wages are another issue that worsens the economic situation
and causes many residents to migrate for Russia. The disparity among the
countries of Central Asia shows clearly the illustration of the situation. In
absolute terms, Tajikistan offers the lowest average monthly wage at just $81,
while its neighbor country Kyrgyzstan offers $155 per month (Ryazantsev,
2016, p.4). Tajikistan reportedly
has the lowest average rate among the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent
States) nations (Ryazantsev,
2016, p.4). Not all professions in
the state have a regular salary, except those who work in the school or as
health workers. Most regular jobs in Tajikistan do not have high
salaries, but in comparison to other countries the cost of living in Tajikistan
is usually quite low. The average of peoples’ salary should be enough to cover
the costs of food and accommodation, but there will not be some money left over
for travel, leisure and running a new business. That is what keeps most elder
people to stay in their land, however the young generation seems not sharing
this notion and strives to make their lives better by making greater affluence.
Therefore, Tajikistan’s economic conditions are not able to overcome this
problem at the moment, because it takes more time. As a result, Tajik migrants
still will be more attracted in high salaries of Russian state.