SheffLink an approach by which individuals and groups

SheffLink Case Study

Organisational
Behaviour (OB) refers to an approach by which individuals and groups act and
relate with one another in the organisation. There is a variety of factors
influencing these acts and relations, which ultimately result in OB issues, such
as leadership, perception, conflict, motivation, groups and teams, within the
organisation. This report aims to use a specific research design, case study,
for examining OB issues within SheffLink, a warehousing and parcel Delivery
Company that specialises in the South Yorkshire distribution market. By
reviewing this case study, the main OB issues have been identified, including leadership,
perception and motivation, and this report explains their impact on the
company’s behaviour and recommends ways to resolve issues identified.

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Organisational
Behaviour Issues and Their Impact

In
the give case study, perception and decision making is the main issue because
of Sue Baxter who felt keeping costs under even tighter control could be best
for the company. She thought her strategy of ‘staff changes’ can begin the
change process positively. One of the main concerns is about the decisions that
Sue had appeared to have taken without any consultation with the Board, staff
members and labour union. It suggests that Sue did not follow the decision-making
approach that involves going with a certain option from among a variety of
choices available. The perception of Sue was that subordinates had no ideas
worthy of any deliberation, and thus Joe Briggs, chief union officer, was
completely shocked by her aggressive behaviour and totally disbelieving of her
believe about workers. Ultimately, her decision about change resulted in
conflict between warehousing and parcel delivery departments. The warehousing
team was dysfunctional with a high employee turnover, because of strict work
environment. To make matters worse, the work was generally monotonous and
repetitive with no incentive to work faster and more efficiently. The warehouse
team felt that their work was not valued; that they were not valued enough and
any recognition awards always went to other departments, never to ‘Warehouse’.

These difficulties fuelled frequent disagreements between members of his team
and this was felt to affect the quality of service to other departments,
particularly to the Delivery team. Hari knew all this but as team leader, his
attitude was very laid back.

 

Organisational
Behaviour Theories and Their Effectiveness

By
reviewing the case study on organisational behaviour (OB) associated with
SheffLink, leadership; perception and decision making, and motivation have been
identified as the main OB issues within the organisation.

Perception
and Decision Making

·      
Attribution
Theory

This
theory was designed to describe how people are judged differently relying upon the
meaning given to a given behaviour (Martinko, Harvey and Douglas, 2007).

According to this theory, when an individual’s behaviour is observed, it is ascertain
whether it was caused internally or externally (Martinko, Harvey and Douglas,
2007). The behaviours caused internally are thought to be under the individual’s
personal control, whereas externally behaviour emerges due to outside factors;
that is, an individual is pushed into the behaviour by the situation. Nevertheless,
that determination relies upon distinctiveness, consensus and consistency
factors (Martinko, Harvey and Douglas, 2007).

As
an essential function of management, decision making involves preferring and
adopting a certain option from among a variety of choices available.

·      
Rational
Decision-Making Model

This
model explains the ways individuals should act or behave with the aim of maximising
some outcome by following steps (Sinclair and Ashkanasy, 2005):

1.    
Identify and define
the issue

2.    
Recognise the decision
criteria

3.    
Weight the criteria

4.    
Bring alternatives
into existence

5.    
Rate every alternative
on each criteria

6.    
Come up with most
favourable decision

 

Motivational
Theories

·      
Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow
is not the first author to write about motivations in the current humanistic
area, but he is one of the best known. Drawing on the experiences of Elton
Mayo, Maslow puts forward a hierarchy of needs, through his famous pyramid (Taormina
and Gao, 2013). The approach seduces, by its simplicity, managers and students
who seize it until making it the main (see the only) key of explanation of the
motives of the man. Maslow explains that man reaches his full psychic
development only by passing through stages that will enable him to motivate and
satisfy, in order (Dye, Mills and Weatherbee, 2005):

o  
Physiological
needs (eating, drinking, sleeping),

o  
Psychological
needs (living in safety),

o  
Social needs
(belonging),

o  
Needs for
self-esteem,

o  
Needs of
accomplishment.

It
was mainly the latter who interested Maslow, who focused on the individual’s
search for fullness (through paroxysmal experiences). Practitioners have
interpreted Maslow’s works in their own way, developing the need for minimum
security to be met for lower needs (e.g. minimum wage) that would enable the
individual to evolve in his search for higher needs and thus to be more
efficient professionally. (Dye, Mills and Weatherbee, 2005).

Leadership
Theories

·      
Personality Traits

This
theory, still current, is defended by Kirkpatrick and Locke who claim to be
able to distinguish leaders from non-leaders (Walumbwa and Schaubroeck, 2009). Its
emphasis is on the will to succeed, ambition and tenacity, as well as the
proactive ability of leaders. The set represents the “drive” which is
the ability to control. Leaders are also motivated, upright and confident in
themselves; while being emotionally stable. They are also skilled and know their
job.

 

·      
Kurt Lewin’s
Leadership Theories

According
to Kurt Lewin, three main styles of leadership can be identified:

First,
the democratic style through which the participation of all organisational
members is encouraged, and the leader plays the role of catalyst. It federates
all the intelligences and puts them at the service of the objectives to be
reached. With the evolution of the company towards the model of the management
of human resources, this style appears today as the most valued, since it is
through it that potentials find a framework of erection and expression.

(Billig, 2014)

Then
the autocratic leader favours the expression rather than the group. The leader
dictates the behaviour to take; he takes and assumes all decisions. All forms
of conflict remain latent since they are inhibited by the repressive power of
the leader. (Billig, 2014)

Finally,
the laissez-faire style is characterised by the passivity of the leader. The
leader lets all intelligences express him and plays only the role of informant
as to the means available. (Billig, 2014)

Recommendations
for SheffLink

Sue
Baxter as leader of SheffLink needs to be familiar with that the staff members react
to perceptions, not to reality. Thus, employees organise and interpret the
situation they see and experience, and thus the chance of perceptual distortion
always exists. Sue needs to focus strongly how employees, especially
warehousing staff perceive their employments and management actions. The staff
turnover, especially the valuable people, due to a perception that they are not
valued is simply a massive loss to SheffLink.

Job
satisfaction also can have impacts on OB, mainly by means of perceptions of
fairness. When staff members perceive everything to be fair, development of trust
is the result. Once the trust is developed, employees are always ready to give
even their voluntary contributions to the organisation.

Sue
is also recommended to consult the Board and her employees, as studies show
that good leaders and managers may spend up to 70% of their valuable time in
these meetings. Sue needs to spend a considerable amount of her time in
identifying OB problems, formulating the best possible solutions, and ascertaining
ways to enact the solutions. Thus, it has been established that theories
related to decision
making are effective to adopt, as they assist in making decisions in the best
interest of employees and of the entire organisation.

Sue
can also recognise individual differences by following the motivational
theories. All the motivational theories, discussed earlier, recognise that each
employee is different, as they have their own different needs, attitudinal
patterns, personality, and other crucial individual factors. Moreover, Sue
needs to match each employee to his or her job. Research evidence reveals the
motivational benefits of cautiously matching employees to jobs. As an instance,
For example, people with high achievement should have tasks allowing them to
partake in setting achievable yet challenging goals and that involve two main
factors including autonomy and feedback.

As
each employee has their own different needs, Sue needs to apply her knowledge
about theoretical concepts of motivation to encourage employees through different
reward systems, including (Taormina and Gao, 2013):

o  
Wage increment
based on performance

o  
Piecework
bonuses

o  
Pay incentives

Moreover,
leadership has also been found as the main OB issue in SheffLink. The aspect of
leadership is indeed one of the highly influential factors in OB. The reason is
that leaders are anticipated to direct the entire organisation in a manner that
maximises corporate objectives and reduces costs, but with keep employee
motivation in mind. SheffLink needs a leadership through which the organisation
must gain the employees’ voluntary contribution in order to achieve
organisational goals. Thus, this process will be influenced by Sue’s personality
and sense of power as a leader. Further, the key aspect of leadership is motivation
as goal will not be achieved if employees are not valued and encouraged, and
for this good performance appraisal is important.

 

 

 

Conclusion

By
using case study research approach, this report examined the OB issues within
SheffLink and explained their impact on the company’s behaviour. Three main OB
issues have been identified within SheffLink. Sue has been recommended ways to
resolve issues identified. It has been recommended to Sue to follow the
theories of perception and decision making, motivation and leadership. The key
aspect of Sue’s leadership is motivation, thus organisational cannot be
achieved if employees, especially warehousing worker, are not valued and
encouraged.