REPORT 2x Data RateThis feature is achieved through

REPORT on Bluetooth 5Features, Comparison and Possibilities for IoTRavinath, W. A. D. A. P.140530LThis is submitted as a partial fulfillment for the moduleEN3250: Internet of ThingsDepartment of Electronics and Telecommunication EngineeringUniversity of Moratuwa25 th of January, 20181Bluetooth 5-Features, Comparison and Possibilitiesfor IoTAmila Pasan,Undergraduate, Electronics and Telecommunication Department, University of Moratuwa,Katubedda, Sri [email protected]—In this report we discuss about the new versionof Bluetooth Low Energy, Bluetooth version 5. Mainly we aregoing to focus on its new features. Then a comparison withearlier versions is discussed. In the end how Bluetooth 5 wouldpotentially enable new possibilities for IoT is illustrated.Figure 1. Packet of coded PHYs for long range.Index Terms—Adaptive gain control (AGC); Gaussian fre-quency shift keying (GFSK); Frequency hopping Spread Spec-trum (FHSS); Protocol data unit (PDU)I. I NTRODUCTIONLUETOOTH 5 is the newest version that was introducedto the Bluetooth family which is standardized as IEEE802.15.1. It was released in late 2016. Bluetooth 5 includedmany major changes in the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)series. Samsung Galaxy S8, iPhone X, iPhone 8 and 8+ weresome of the notable commercial early-adopters of Bluetooth5 3.BII. N EW F EATURESThere are 4 major features of Bluetooth 5 2:••••2x data rate to 2Msymbols/s4x range8x broadcast capacityHigher available transmit powerA. 2x Data RateThis feature is achieved through a new modulation mode.Both Bluetooth LE and Classic has a single modulation modewith Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK). As the nominalfrequency deviation is ±250 kHz, they achieve a gross datarate of 1 Mbps.The new optional PHY with a nominal frequency deviationof ±500 kHz has been introduces to Bluetooth 5, resulting agross data rate of 2 Mbps 2.It is important to mention that this increase in data rate isachieved without increasing the power consumption 4.B. 4x RangeThis kind of a dramatic increase in range is achieved usinga special kind of a coding for long range with the addition ofmore overhead.1) Packet Format for Coded PHYs (LE Long Range): Apacket of coded PHYs for long range is shown in Fig. 1.Following items are common to long range mode and othermodes.• Preamble: A fixed sequence of 0s and 1s to help thereceiver to synchronize, etc. and for other purposes likeadaptive gain control (AGC).• Access address: A random value to identify access to aphysical channel.• Protocol data unit (PDU): Actual message, for instanceTx address + Rx address + user data• CRC: cyclic redundancy checkFollowing overheads are specific to long range mode tofacilitate long range communication:• CI: Coding indicator is used to signal the coding block2.• T1 and T2: Termination Fields are generated using aforward error correction encoder.C. 8x Broadcast CapacityBluetooth low energy advertising procedures are extendedin order to achieve this feature.Figure 2. PDU for advertising.Advertising allows devices to broadcast information defin-ing their intentions. It can be considered as Bluetooth com-munication starts with advertising 5.PDUs are of 2 kinds in Bluetooth low energy in terms oftransmission:• data : 37 channels are dedicated• advertising: 3 channels are dedicated2In Bluetooth 4.0 it was the case. But Bluetooth 5 allows theother 37 channels also for advertising, defining a secondary setof advertising channels.Following are the new advertising PDUs defined:• ADV EXT IND: Supports unconnectable (broadcastonly) and scannable directed events• AUX ADV IND: Used for first fragment of advertisingdata sent on the secondary advertising channel (uncon-nectable and scannable directed)• AUX SYNC IND: Used for periodic advertising whereunidirectional data is sent at fixed intervals• AUX CHAIN IND: Sends remaining data from incom-plete auxiliary PDU advertising eventsMore information is available in 6.D. Higher Available Transmit PowerIn Bluetooth 5, the avalilable transmit power can be go up to+20 dBm. To keep a low energy consumption, an independentpower controller is allowed to be used in a Bluetooth 5 enableddevice. Informative Tx power classesin Bluetooth Low Energyis shown in Tab. I.Table II NFORMATIVE T X POWER CLASSES IN BLEClass11.523Max Output (dBm)+20+10+40III. C OMPARISON WITH OTHER V ERSIONS OF B LUETOOTHTable II compares and contrasts between Bluetooth Classic,Bluetooth 4.x and Bluetooth 5.IV. N EW P OSSIBILITIES FOR I O TSome use cases that emerge with new features of Bluetooth5 are briefly discussed below:A. Technologies Related to BeaconsSince Bluetooth 5 has such a higher broadcast capacity, thetechnology will be one of the most suitable candidates forbeacons. Some use cases are given below:• Proximity beacon: Since Bluetooth 5 has the advertis-ing PDU ADV EXT IND which supports unconnectable(broadcast only) events these kinds of beacons can useBluetooth 5 technology. For example suppose we are in aart exhibition. When a guest go near an art of an elephantthe sound of an elephant plus information of art can begenerated with these kinds of beacons• Maintenance beacon: ADV EXT IND also supportsscannable directed events. For example, a bathroom bea-con broadcasting directly to a central controller of anapartment. The central controller can request additionalinformation via “scan request”.Periodic Beacons: As the newly introduced PDU forBluetooth 5-AUX SYNC IND is used for Periodic Ad-vertising, this can be used for a unidirectional use caselike a beacon for the train station which announces nexttrain which lead to user’s residence.Although its only 1 year after introducing Bluetooth 5 andabout 7 years of introducing Bluetooth Low Energy, large-scale implementation of beacon technology can be seen inreal life. Some of them which are used in airports are listedbelow 7:1) Gatwick Airport:• Around 2000 beacons in 2 terminals• A proprietary service to guide passengers through airportwith augmented reality2) Cincinati International Airport:• BLIP (Bluetooth local infortainment point) Systems tomanage:– travel times– queue times– movement patternswith the help of Bluetooth sensors.3) DFW International Airport:• Uses a proprietary technology to help passengers call upmaps on their phones thatguide them to terminals andshops.4) New York’s JFK:• Passenger management by tracking passengers in airportusing their Bluetooth enabled mobile phones so thatbottlenecks can be figured out to avoid delays.5) Miami International Airport (MIA):• One of the leading adopters of beacon technologies.• Has a dedicated mobile-app that can alert passengers:– The location of their gates– Flight times– Their baggage collection area•R EFERENCES1 J. Haartsen and S. Mattisson, “Bluetooth-a new low-power radio interfaceproviding short-range connectivity”, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 88, no.10, pp. 1651-1661, 2000.2 B. Schulz, “From cable replacement to the IoT, Bluetooth 5,White Paper”. Online. Available: https://bluetoothworldevent.com/media/PDFs/Rohde–26-Schwarz 3e Bluetooth WhitePaper.pdf. Ac-cessed: 22- January- 2018.3 “Bluetooth”, En.wikipedia.org, 2018. Online. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth. Accessed: 22- January- 20184 “Understanding Bluetooth 5”, Mouser.com, 2018. Online. Available:http://www.mouser.com/pdfdocs/Methods%20Bluetooth%205%20-%20Volume%201%20Issue%201.pdf. Accessed: 23- Jan- 2018.5 “Bluetooth Low Energy – It starts with Advertising — Bluetooth Tech-nology Website”, Blog.bluetooth.com, 2018. Online. Available: https://blog.bluetooth.com/bluetooth-low-energy-it-starts-with-advertising. Ac-cessed: 24- Jan- 2018.6 “Exploring Bluetooth 5 – What’s new in Advertising? — Bluetooth Tech-nology Website”, Blog.bluetooth.com, 2018. Online. Available: https://blog.bluetooth.com/exploring-bluetooth5-whats-new-in-advertising. Ac-cessed: 24- Jan- 2018.7 “The Rise of Beacon Technology — Bluetooth TechnologyWebsite”,Blog.bluetooth.com,2018.Online.Available:https://blog.bluetooth.com/the-rise-of-beacon-technology.Accessed:24- Jan- 2018.3Table IIC OMPARISON BETWEEN B LUETOOTH VERSIONSFeatureRF (MHz)Range (m)Medium Access TechniqueNominal data rate (Mb/s)Latency (ms)Network TopologyMulti-hop SolutionNodes/Active SlavesMessage Size (bytes) Bluetooth Classic2400 – 2483.5Up to 100Frequency hopping1-3>100Piconet, scaternetScatternet7Up to 358RF Channels 79 with 1 MHz spacingBluetooth 4.x2400 – 2483.5Up to 100Frequency hopping1>6Star-bus, meshYesUnlimited3140 with 2 MHz spacing* 3 advertising* 37 dataBluetooth 52400 – 2483.5Up to 400Frequency hopping1-2>3Star-bus, meshYesUnlimited25540 with 2 MHz spacing* 3 advertising* 37 data (+ secondary advertising)