Protein believe it was first domesticated in central

Protein and
Oil Quality in Soybean

 

INTRODUCTION:

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                             Soybean (Glycine max), also
known as Soja bean or Soja is an
annual legume of family Fabaceae. Its
chromosomes number in 2n=40. The soybean is economically the most important
bean in the world providing food for the millions of people and help in the
production of many chemical products.

            The
soybean is an erect branching plant and can reach upto 2m or more in height. It
is self-fertilized plant. Flowers are white or purplish shade. Seeds can be
yellow, green, black, brown, or bicoloured. Most of the commercial varieties
have brown and tan seeds with seeds ranging from 1-4 per pod. It is one of the
richest source of protein and it is a staple crop of different parts of the
world. Seed contains 17% oil and 63% meal, 50% of which is protein.

 

History &
Origin:

                   The origins of the soybean plant are obscure, but many
botanists believe it was first domesticated in central China as early as 7000 BC. An
ancient crop, the soybean has been used in China, Japan, and Korea for thousands of years as a food and a
component of medicines. Soybeans were introduced into the United States in
1804 and became particularly
important in the South and Midwest
in the mid-20th century. Brazil and Argentina are also major producers.

            This new interest in soybeans as an oilseed crop
has also been accompanied by widespread genetic engineering of the legume.
Nearly 90% of all soy products in
the U.S. marketplace now come from soybeans that have been genetically
engineered (GE), making them one of the world’s top foods in terms of genetic
modification. Genetic engineering of soybeans began as early as 1998 with the introduction of soybeans
into the marketplace that had been modified for better resistance to the
commercial herbicide glufosinate ammonium. Since
1998, at least eight other GE patents have been granted for use on
soybeans, most of them involving better resistance to pesticides and
herbicides. If you are trying to avoid consumption of GE soy in your diet, your
best bet is to purchase certified organic soybeans and soy products, since
genetic engineering is not allowed under federal organic regulations.

            The transition of G. soja(Wild) to G. max (present
cultivar) is a result of three genetic bottlenecks, namely:

·        
Domestication in Asia which lead to production of
many Asian landraces.

·        
Founding effects which lead to selection of few
landraces, introduction in northern and southern U.S.

·        
Then selective breeding which lead to production
of the present cultivars

Nutritional
Value:

          The
nutrition of soybean per 100g of soybean cooked and boiled is as follows:

SUBSSTANCES

AMOUNT

Calories

173

Water

63 %

Protein

16.6 g

Carbohydrates

9.9 g

Sugar

3 g

Fiber

6 g

Fat

9 g

Saturated

1.3 g

Mono-unsaturated

1.98 g

Poly-unsaturated

5.06 g

Omega-3

0.6 g

Omega-6

4.47 g

 

 

 

 

 

SOYBEAN IN
DAILY LIFE:

1.     Food for Humans:

Nearly
all soybeans are processed for their oil. Soy processors (such as Cargill &
ADM) take the raw soybeans and separate the oil from the meal. The oil may
be refined for cooking and other edible uses, or sold for biodiesel production
or industrial uses. Soybean oil is used in cooking and frying
foods. Margarine is a product made from soybean oil. Salad dressings and
mayonnaises are made with soybean oil. Some foods are packed in soybean oil
(tuna, sardines, etc.)  Baked breads, crackers, cakes, cookies and pies
usually have soybean oil in them.

2.     Feed for Animals:

The
high-protein fiber (that which remains after processing has removed the
oil) is toasted and prepared into animal feed for poultry, pork, cattle, other
farm animals and pets.  The poultry and swine industries are major
consumers of soybean meal. Over half of the soybeans processed for livestock
feed are fed to poultry, about one-quarter is fed to swine, and the rest is
used for beef cattle, dairy cattle and pet food. Soy protein is increasingly
found in fish food, both for home aquariums and for the fish grown for
eating.  Most marine species were fed fish meal at one time, but the
scarcity and increasing cost of fish meal has led producers to switch to high
protein soymeal for a variety of marine species. Around the world, soy
protein may be found in feed for most animals.

3.     Other
Uses:

 

·        
Biodiesel
fuel for diesel engines can be produced from soybean oil by a simple process
called transesterification. This process removes the glycerin from the
oil, leaving soy biodiesel.  Soy biodiesel is cleaner burning than
petroleum-based diesel oil.  Its use reduces particulate emissions, and it
is non-toxic, renewable and environmentally friendly.

·        
Bio-composites
are building materials made from recycled newspaper and soybeans. They replace
other products traditionally made from wood, such as furniture, flooring, and
countertops.

·        
Particleboard,
laminated plywood and finger-jointed lumber are made with soy-based wood
adhesives.

·        
Soy
products are also found in many popular brands of home and commercial carpet,
and in auto upholstery applications.

·        
Soy
oil produces an environmentally friendly solvent that safely and rapidly
removes oil from creeks, streams and shorelines without harming people, animals
and the environment. Soy is an ingredient in many industrial lubricants,
solvents, cleaners and paints.

·        
Candles
made with soybean oil burn longer but with less smoke and soot.

·        
Soy-Ink
is superior to petroleum-based inks because soy ink is not toxic, renewable and
environmentally friendly, and it cleans up easily.

CONT.

·        
Soy
crayons made by the Dixon Ticonderoga Company replace the petroleum used in
regular crayons with soy oil making them non-toxic and safer for children.

·        
Soy-based
lubricants are as good as petroleum-based lubricants, but can withstand higher
heat. More importantly, they are non-toxic, renewable and environmentally
friendly.

·        
Soy-based
hydraulic fluid and rail flange lubricants are among the more recent products
developed with check-off funds.

·        
Soy
based foams are currently being developed for use in coolers, refrigerators,
automotive interiors and even footwear.  Beginning in 2007, Ford Mustangs
and other vehicles rolled off the production line with soy foam in the
seats.  New uses in the automotive and equipment industry followed,
including lubricants, body parts, interiors and seating.

 

Soybean as Oil:

Per
100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat, 23 g of monounsaturated fat, and
58 g of polyunsaturated fat. The major unsaturated fatty acids
in soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturated alpha-linolenic
acid (C-18:3), 7-10%, and linoleic acid (C-18:2), 51%; and the
monounsaturated oleic acid (C-18:1), 23%. It also contains
the saturated fatty acids stearic acid (C-18:0), 4%,
and palmitic acid (C-16:0), 10%.

The
high-proportion of oxidation-prone linolenic acid is undesirable for some uses,
such as cooking oils. Three companies, Monsanto Company, DuPont/Bunge,
and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic Roundup Ready
soybeans. Hydrogenation may be used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic
acid. The resulting oil is called hydrogenated soybean oil. If the
hydrogenation is only partially complete, the oil may contain small amounts
of trans fat.

Type
 

Saturated Fatty
acid

Monounsaturated
Fatty acids
 

Polyunsaturated
Fatty acids

Total mono
 

Oleic acid
(?-9)
 

Totally poly
 

Linolenic acid
(?-3)

Linoleic acid
(?-6)

Hydrogenated

15.6

22.8

22.6

57.7

7

51

Partially
Hydrogenated

14.9

43.0

42.5

37.6

2.6

34.9