Obesity accumulation of excess of body fat that

Obesity is a medical condition defined as
an accumulation of excess of body fat that lead to many health problems and
reduced life expectancy. Obesity usually associates with hypertension,
diabetes, cardio vascular diseases (CVDs) and dyslipidemia (Grundy, 2004). Obesity is commonly measured by the
Body mass index (BMI), which is calculated as the weight in kilograms divided
by the square of the height in meters. Normal BMI is considered between
18.5 to 24.9. However, Overweight, obesity and extreme obesity are classified
as the following: the BMI for overweight is 25.0 or greater and less than 30.0,
obesity BMI is 30.0 or greater and lastly extreme obesity is BMI 40.0 or
greater (Mendy, Vargas, Cannon-Smith, & Payton, 2017). The prevalence and incidence of obesity
are increasing rapidly to epidemic proportions in industrial areas as well as
worldwide. It has increased three folds between 1975 and 2016 and more than 1.9
billion adults were overweight in 2016 (WHO, 2017).

Obesity results from energy imbalance
between energy intake and energy usage at which both environmental and genetic
factors play a role in its onset. Environmental risk factors include physical
inactivity, consumption of fast foods, sugary food and inadequate sleep. In
addition, genetic factors contribute to the onset of obesity. Obesity could be
due to monogenic; mutation in a single gene, or polygenic; mutations in more
than one gene. Although those genes do not directly cause obesity, they
contribute to its onset and development in parallel with other genetic
alterations (O’Rahilly, Farooqi, Yeo, & Challis, 2003).

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Many studies that have provided data
about obesity risk factors were focused on western countries more than any
other areas. The western studies’ conclusions do not necessarily apply to other
population due to variety of genetic and environmental factors. Recent progress
via genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified many additional
genetic factors that appear to inflate the risk of disorders in some
individuals (Zeggini et al., 2008). Studying different
populations with different background such as Qatari population which has a
small population size and high consanguinity will clearly provide better
understanding of obesity risk factors world widely. Consanguinity has reached
54% in Qatar, and obesity prevalence is more than 70%. The high incidence and prevalence
of obesity has been due to lifestyle changes after discovering oil in gulf area
and increased wealth (Tomei et al., 2015).

Development and
building of cities has occurred rapidly which has changed the old lifestyle of
traveling, to sedentary lifestyle, which contributed to increased obesity.

Recent GWAS studies have showed relationship between genes and obesity, but it
is not well known if those genetic markers influence similar risks in people of
different descent (Larson et al., 2007). Distribution of
diseases related to alleles between different population is uneven specially
for recessive disorder such as monogenic obesity of mutation in Leptin Receptor
(Hindorff et al., 2009). The risk of a genetic marker identified by GWAS
might vary according to the population being studied cause populations with
different ancestry have variability of allelic frequency (Meyre et al., 2009).