NATURE the Human Genome Project’s surprising results. According

NATURE OR NURTURE

1.Introduction

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For
a long time now, there has been an argument on nature versus nurture in the
development of human, which is one of the biggest problems in Development
Psychology. Some people argue that inherited genes have an enormous impact on
human development. For example, kid’s stature, eye shading, and facial
appearance are generally control by genetic factors. As Rothbart, Ahadi, and
Evans (2000) and D. C.Rowe, Almeida, and Jacobson (1999) says, “Children’s
temperament – their characteristic ways of responding to emotional events,
novel stimuli, and their own impulses – seems to be in part  affected by their individual genetic make-up”
Nonetheless there are those who claim that we are effected by our environment
such as cultural experiences, social interactions with other people, etc.
Clearly, support influences youngters’ advancement through various channels:
physically through sustenance, exercises, and stress; mentally through casual
encounters and formal guidelines; and socially through grown-up good examples
and companion connections. Therefore, there has always been a continuing
controversy whether innate or environment gains a more dominant influence on
individual growth. However the role of heredity and nurture must be reconsidered
in light of the Human Genome Project’s surprising results. According to result
of the Human Genome Project, “Since 95% of the population possess “fit” genes,
dysfunctions in this population are attributable to environmental influences
(nurture)”. Therefore, this paper, with the purpose of sharing three keys explanations
as to why human improvement depends essentially on ecological variables, not
hereditary elements.

1.     
Discussion
of findings

2.1.Background information about
nature and nurture

Before
this issue can be fully discussed, it is necessary to understand what nature
and nurture actually are. The definition of nature derives from  the genetic inheritance or the genetic
make-up, which a person inherits from both parents at the time of conception and
carries it throughout life (Stephanie Mojica,2017). As Kail, and Cavanaugh
(2013) said that “nature is concerned with traits that are genetically
inherited”. There are many things in an individual, which are heredity factors
such as sex, shade of eyes, hair and skin, hazards for specific infections,
tallness and different qualities. On the other hand, in a 2017 article “How do
nature and nurture influence human development”, Stephanie Mojica claims that  “nurture can be defined as the different
environmental factors to which person is subjected from birth to death”.
Obviously, environmental elements include a host of dimensions. They involve
both physical environments and social environments. For instance, an individual
has to suffer from and expose to not just pressure from their friends but also parental
ideals or preconception of society.

2.2.Heredity dimension depends on
environmental factors

It
is essential to realize that nature as the form of inherited traits does exist
but in general, an individual’s behavior is effected significantly by nurture
or upbringing. In the past years, “genetics were able to persuade most
psychologist that inherited plays an effective role in influencing
intelligence” (Plomin and Defries, 1998). Nevertheless, “a high degree of
heredity does not mean that the environment has no influence on the development
of any trait” (Neisser et al, 1995). The heredity characteristics are not
always evidently expressed at birth. Many physical features are revealed when
people go through the process of “maturation”- the term used by T.M McDevitt
J.E.Ormrod. According to his study, through the course of development,  nature elements are just improved completely.
For example, traits such as weight can be inherited, but it can also be enhanced
by the  exterior conditions – surrounding
environment. Another trait is height which is “an inherited trait, but it has
increased in recent generations in the United States” (Sternberg, 1996). According
to this study, environmental supports such as food, reasonably safe and
toxin-free surroundings, and responsive care from others, which are necessary
for maturation to occur; inherited traits never works alone.

 Many recent surveys carried out on infant and
children behavior have shown that there is significant evidence to support the
fact that environmental factors strongly impact human development , especially
in the early years. In today’s world, almost all parents encourage their kids
to participate in some supplemental activities such as learning music, dancing,
and sports  in order to enhance and
develop talents or interests of kids. Probably, those talents have been given
by nature, however they can only be developed into fluent skills when they have
experienced the severe work of environment elements. Hence, in the article
“Myths, Countermyths, and truth about intelligence”, Sternberg states that “intelligence
could be partially or even highly heritable and, at the same time, partially or
even modifiable” (Sternbeg, p.14). Moreover, in other words, nature’s partner
is nurture –  the environmental
conditions. “Nature and nurture are partners also in the transactions between
the gene and the variety of internal environments that surround it within the
body (Greenough, 1991; Greenough and Black, 1992). Since then, it is time to
reconsider about both terms of  nature
and nurture that they are inseparable and complementary to each other. Especially,
it is not nature versus nurture, it is rather nature through nurture.

2.3.Environmental factors have a
more dominant influence on people

Undoubtedly,
nurture plays a really massive role in early human development. Nurture in
several methods or another encourage individual’s competence to learn and study
new things. There is the common proverb that ” practice makes perfect”. Hence,
a person can pick up knowledge by exercising to adapt to all or any creations
in these circumstances or conditions. The section that nurture plays in human
development has been proved by psychologists in experiments where stepping
observe was administered to a cohort of presumption for a few minutes
repeatedly during a day. It was later that these youngsters were able to walk
many days earlier than some infants who had not been stepped exercise.(Zalazo,
Zelazo and Kolb,1972). Everyone was born with a detailed set of potential,
however if not put in the right situation, those potentials can never flourish.
This will, then, hinder human development. Inherited factors do not guarantee a
person’ progressive process. Environments factors, on the opposite aspect of
the argument, shape who someone are, how people work together with others, and
how they behave. John Watson, who established the Psychological school of
Behaviorism, emphasized that despite a child’s inherent potentials , people
will be able to be conditioned and trained to become anyone, which is not
requires a specific a set of experiences. Because that development is
influenced and stimulated by the atmosphere they live in.

Obviously,
it is evident that genetic factors is responsible for manufacturing healthy,
well-developed babies. It is also environmental elements that play a pivotal
role within early stages of human development. Analysis has ended certainly
that early human development is faster because environment conditions are formed
on the competence  provided by inherited.
Moreover genetic elements is responsible for the conventional development of
the craniate into a standard and healthy baby, 
however it cannot entirely develop that craniate into an intelligent, knowledgeable
or athletic adult. This can be potential solely through the exposure that
nurture provides someone. Thus, it would be correct to mention that even though
the character has a point of influence, nurture powerfully influences early
human development.