integrated article review consists of three peer reviewed articles that
discussed emotions and mood in the workplace.
Aspects of organizational behavior include emotions and moods. The outcome of emotions and mood is the
effect they cause within the workplace. Mood
and emotion can impact and individual, a team or colleagues or even an entire
organization. The following review will
discuss why I chose these articles, reasons for my research, if I agree or
disagree with the author’s hypothesis, assumptions and my conclusion.
Organizational Behavior: Emotions &
Mood in the Workplace
The three articles I selected focused primarily on emotions
and mood within an organization. They
each varied in their own way and I chose them because I wanted to see the
different viewpoints from each article and gain a better understanding of the
topics they focused on. One journal
article focused directly on mood and ethical decision making. The next focused on emotions, mood and the
effect they have on behaviors within an organization. The last journal article focused on emotions
being the heart of workplace behavior.
While all three are similar in terms of emotions and moods; they still varied
enough to learn something unique from each journal article.
to review journal articles based on emotions and mood because I consider myself
to be an extremely empathetic person to the core. I strive to understand more about myself
every day, how my emotions and mood potentially affect me within the workplace
and to educate myself from a point of view that was not my own. I am beginning my journey down the managerial
path with my career and I felt this would not only expand my knowledge for
class but within my professional life as well.
I wanted to take the time to learn something new and take it with me in
the future going forward. I also saw
this as an opportunity to learn, share knowledge and grow from what I learn and
take away with this assignment.
As we explore these articles, it is important to first understand
the difference between an emotion and mood.
Emotions are an extreme feeling; whereas moods are a moderate feeling
that are triggered by a stimulus response (Robbins & Judge, 2018, p. 47). One term that was common
throughout each article was cognitive emotion.
Cognitive emotion is based on the two-factor theory proposed by Schacter
and Singer (Micallef-Trigona, 2014). Micallef-Trigona (2014) states that, “stimulus
leads to the arousal that is labeled using the cognitive that leads to the
emotion.” An example of cognitive theory
could be a smell. We have a rule in the
office that no one is allowed to heat up seafood in the office because it
lingers all day long. The smell triggers
aggravation in individuals because it is not a pleasant smell. In turn, the smell can cause individuals to
become irritated and irritation can increase one’s heart rate.
In Noval & Stahl’s (2015)
article they explore moral emotions. Their
article states that “moral emotions can be categorized as guilt, empathy, and embarrassment”
(Noval & Stahl, 2015, p. 590). These types of emotions play a critical role
when it comes to making ethical decisions.
Noval & Stahl also discuss how mood effects our decision-making but
within an organizational environment our decisions can be abstruse. Nica (2014) states that, “the foundations for
emotions and associated reactions can alter with emotional strength’ (p.
123). Nica’s article also discusses
nonverbal signals that trigger certain emotions by individuals (Nica, 2014,
p.124). In the last journal article I
reviewed by Mirela and Lulia (2013), they discussed how emotions and behavior
were at the core of an organization (p. 1595).
The articles focuses primarily on emotional triggers in an organization environment
(Mirela & Lulia, 2013, p. 1595).
In Noval and Stahl’s (2015)
article, their hypothesis states, “we demonstrate that positive and negative
mood may have asymmetrical and paradoxical effects on decision making” (p.589). Asymmetrical simply means not equal and
paradoxical is equivalent to inconsistency.
One area that caught my attention the most from this journal article
discussed public analysis from exceedingly open occurrences of managerial mistakes. These mistakes are thought to be triggered by
a conscious and subconscious process with ethical decision making. These mistakes are also thought to be
triggered by moral emotions such as guilt.
The findings in the article state that mood is the primary source when
it comes to decision making (p. 590).
In Nica’s (2014)
article, the hypothesis states, “employees consider emotions as valuable
information when handling situations.
The organizational setting confines or stimulates emotions” (p.124). Emotional intelligence is another key factor
discussed in this article. “Emotional
intelligence is the ability to identify and manage your own emotions and the
emotions of others,” (“Emotional Intelligence | Psychology
Today,” n.d.). Emotional
intelligence is composed of three main aspects that include emotional
awareness, being able to connect emotions and use them to complete tasks. Nica states that emotions can prevent
cognitive processing which basically means to prevent one from processing tasks
efficiently due to an emotion. An
example would be continual positive motivation.
This triggers a confident emotion within an individual and promotes
successful decision making (Nica, 2014, p. 125).
In Mirela and Lulia’s (2013) article, the hypothesis states,
“emotions are triggered by certain things, people, events, situations,
processes, results, etc. and biological factors and individual intelligence” (p.1595). The article also states that emotions are
influenced by learning and emotions create our tendencies to act based on
purpose and results we’ve learned (Mirela & Lulia, 2013, p. 1596). According to
Mirela and Lulia, there are also at least four primary emotions. These include satisfaction-happiness,
aversion-fear, assertion-anger, and disappointment-sadness (Mirela & Lulia,
2013, p. 1598).
One assumptions made by Noval and Stahl (2015), is that “moral
intensity derives from a rational framework of ethical decision making so people
can objectively assess a moral intensity that exists.” Moral intensity is a range that people view
something as ethical or not (“Chapter Five: Ethics and Social
Responsibility | Lev Lafayette,” n.d.).
Moral intensity is influenced by consequences. Depending on the degree of the consequence is
how we determine if something is deemed good or bad (“Chapter Five: Ethics
and Social Responsibility | Lev Lafayette,” n.d.). This comes into play in the workplace by
management and their ethical decision making (Noval & Stahl, 2015, p. 593). According to
Noval and Stahl (2015), decision making within an organization can be affected
by ones mood (p. 593). If a person is in
a good mood they view a strategic decision as an opportunity verses if they
were to be in a bad mood and consider the decision a risk (Noval & Stahl,
2015, p. 593).
Nica’s (2014) article also discusses
consequences from emotional responses and states that stress can reduce the
ability to amplify emotional memories (p. 126).
“Cognitive, personality and social mechanisms impact emotional control
and manifestation that influence organizational behavior” (Nica, 2014,
p. 126). One thing
I found interesting from this article is that individuals within an
organization who excel at separating and promoting emotional trends often
advance more than those who do not (Nica, 2014, p. 126).
Mirela and Lulia’s (2013) article discusses
consequences as well. The articles
states that managers increase their self-awareness cause and effect of
emotions. This includes understanding
emotions such as guilt, anger, pride or joy.
By being able to identify these types of emotions they should be able to
show others how to express them in words successfully (Mirela &
Lulia, 2013, p. 1602).
In conclusion, we have learned the difference between moods and emotions along
with the effects they have within an organization. Each article touches on similar items that
included roles mood have on one with the workplace, cognitive emotion and how
emotion effects decision making within an organization as well. Mirela and Lulia’s (2013)
article discusses three concepts to aid in an emotionally effective culture
that include understanding emotion, knowing what is ideal and promoting
emotional intelligence within the workplace (p. 1602). Nica’s (2014) article concludes that
leadership within an organization need to understand, be able to identify and
have control over emotions within their workplace to be successful (p. 127). Lastly, Noval & Stahl (2015)
conclude that mood plays an important role within the work place and leadership
decision making (p. 599). Organizations
should practice and promote ethical behavior by motivating and inspiring their
employees as well (Noval & Stahl, 2015,
Chapter Five: Ethics
and Social Responsibility | Lev Lafayette. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Intelligence | Psychology Today. (n.d.). Retrieved from
(2014, October 22). Comparing The 5 Theories of Emotion | Brain Blogger.
& Lulia, S. I. (2013). Emotions in the Organizational
Nica, E. (2014).
Emotional Behavior in Organizations, 2(3), 123-128.
Noval, L. J.,
& Stahl, G. K. (2015). Accounting for Proscriptive and
Prescriptive Morality in the Workplace: The Double-Edged Sword Effect of Mood
on Managerial Ethical Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics, 142(3),
Robbins, S. P.,
& Judge, T. (2018). Emotions and Moods. In Essentials of