3.1.1. like health, education and so on enable

3.1.1.
Capability Approach Amartya Sen in his Ability approach
conceptualized development as far as individuals’ capacity to go about as they
prefer. This approach was penned down in 1980s. It tested different methods
aimed at measuring development in a nation, for example, gross national
product, individual personal incomes and so forth. Sen took development as a
procedure in which freedom of individuals is increased and individuals are
direct beneficiaries. As the word capability infers an individual’s capacity
for understanding one’s capability to its fullest, so accordingly this approach
development should be directly linked to individuals in term of their capacity
to work easily, enlarging their freedom and giving them adequate opportunities.
Factors, for example, giving individual’s access to important facilities like
health, education and so on enable individuals to understand their potential in
an encouraging environment. This theoretical approach depends on
two claims i.e. “Freedom” and “Capabilities”. The first
claim is understood as Freedom for accomplishing well-being; while the second
claim is taken as provision of real opportunities to individuals regarding
growing individuals’ capacities. Capability approach looks at human life from a
set of “beings” and “doings”. It joins personal
satisfaction to ability of people to work as they would decide to. Capability
approach is dependable on grounds of wealth of life. Success of any project
should be appreciated regarding its impact on lives of individuals in terms of
extending their level of freedom. Capacity approach assesses the
quality of life and interlinks it with the development. This can set the
argument that the achievement of a project should be viewed in terms of its
socio-economic impact on individuals. As the conception of development require
an expansion in the wellbeing of individuals, so capability approach will help
in measuring the extended scope of people in terms of social and economic
performance (Deneulin and McGregor, 2010). In this approach, wellbeing and
development can be achieved if individuals are being given actual opportunities
for doing things that they appreciate and might want to do. Development should
reveal as an expansion in individuals’ decision made in their lives.
Individuals must be sufficiently capable for settling on their own choices so
they could fill in as operators of their own lives. As the focus of this study is to
make a better understanding linked with the sustainability of renewable energy
as well as assessing transformation of livelihoods due to solar
electrification, thus capability approach is the related approach for this
study. This approach will help in evaluating the effect on the inhabitants of
specified village because of the solar electrification regarding life style as
they desire to live in less polluted air, to have a improve access to
information through radio, internet, and television and to have a improve education    through increasing night work hours; and
regarding increasing their freedom to do as they like because of easy
accessibility and availability of solar energy.3.1.2.
Theory of Reasoned ActionAs stated by Brown, Massey and Burkman,(2002) states the theory
that both state of mind and subjective norm are significant determinants of
people groups plan to install and utilize sun based innovation in enterprises.
And also the intention to adopt and to further more future planning for solar
technology will be effected by individuals’ state of mind. This theory states
that people behaviour is impacted by their behaviour’s planning which is
affected by their state of mind towards behaviour for subjective norm. (Venkalesh
& Davis, 2000).Behavioural intention channels a one’s relative strength of
plan to act upon behaviour. Attitude contains values about the consequences of
acting the behaviour multiplied by their assessment of these consequences
(Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Subjective norm is viewed as a mixture of
perceived expectations from applicable persons or groups along with planning.
Thus, individual’s attitude, combined with subjective norms, makes his
behavioural intention. 3.1.3. Innovative Diffusion Theory (IDT) Rogers in 1995 explain the theory of diffusion of
innovation gives perceptions that people might have from claiming adopting a
technology for example, such that solar technology. The theory explains,
predicts, and accounts for the factors which impact selection of a technology.
This is in line for those studied variables. As stated by Rogers (2003) people
solar technology behavior is determined by their recognitions perceptions in
regards to relative advantage, compatibility, Unpredictability and also
observability from claiming a innovation. These constructs have correlated with
the studied variables. This identifies with attitude towards utilization of sun
oriented technology.3.1.4. Theory of change The theory of change framework will provide a more detailed
analysis of the impacts of solar energy access in this study area. The  “Theory  of 
change”  is  a 
theoretical  frame  work/tool 
often  used  to 
analyse  and evaluate activities,
policies, initiatives, or interventions. A theory of change (TOC) is an instrument
for making solutions to difficult social troubles. A central TOC defines how a collection
of untimely and intermediate actions sets the phase for generating long-term
goal. (Anderson, 2005)  In  order  to 
achieve  the  desired 
long-term  outcome  under 
the  theory  of 
change framework, certain assumptions need to be made. The assumptions
made in this study include; a) 
Increased modern energy access According to theory of change households will continuously
use the solar home systems, new households adopt the technology , the  Solar 
Home  Systems  remain 
active  over  the 
long  term, serious
maintenance  issues, households are able
to pay for the systems and services. b) 
Improved household income Solar access will lead to better performance of existing
enterprises and will increase income of some household, new enterprises will be
established with the availability of this technology, and savings are increase
from less use of kerosene.  c) 
Improvement in education Children will study hours will increase with the usage of
solar electrification specially at night time and good  grades 
as  a  result 
of  studying  longer 
motivates  the  children 
to  enrol  for further education. d) 
Improved social welfare A sense of joy and prestige is derived from the ownership
of a solar home system, Users of SHSs are able to establish income-generating
enterprises to supplement family income such as bazaar/neighbourhoods shops,
Improved information access via radio and television, Women are empowered
(economic, social and political) e)  Improvement
in health and safety at home Solar energy access will reduced indoor air pollution,
access to health related information via radio or TV such as family planning,
sanitation, disease control and availability of income from savings that is now
used for health care services. In addition households have at least one
external security light Thus, The Theory of Change Framework has been explained and
how it will be used to analyze the social, economic and community benefits of
the solar electrification.3.2. DEFINITION OF CENTRAL TERMSPrice:This refers to price of solar
panels, batteries, price of different solar electronic devices like bulbs, fans, irons and
mobile chargers used to make possible the solar energy for domestic use by households.Availability of Alterative sources: This term is defined as the accessibility of other sources
of energy utilized by households for example electricity, biogas, bio fuel,
kerosene, gas and many more.Level of knowledge and awareness: This term is defined as the number of solar adoption viewed
in the region, number of formal and no. of informal trainers in the area.Income Level: This term is defined as the regular income earned by the
household and also refers to that household income range.  Solar Technology: This refers to source of energy from the sun that is
converted for lighting, heating water, pump water and run other household
appliances.Load shedding: This term refers to the shutdown of electric power i.e.,
numbers of hours of lad shedding faced by households in the regions.Sustainability: This term defined as the economic sustainability which is
refers to the affordability of solar technology including installation cost and
maintenance cost faced by households and environmental sustainability refers to
the pollution caused by solar system faced by household. And this term also
defined as it fulfilled the needs of households.Durability: This term refers to the lifetime of solar system i.e., how
many years this solar system works and also defines the life span of batteries.Weather: This term refers to Is the area suitable for solar system
and also defines numbers of hours of sunlight in a day time faced by the
households.Adoption of solar system: This term defines how many households are using the solar
system in this area.3.3. SELECTION OF THE RESEARCH METHODThis study focused on exploring the factors
affecting the adoption of solar electrification and analyzing sustainability of
solar technology in rural areas of District Peshawar. The purpose is to
determine the effects of such technology subjectively. This primary research
will help in reflecting people’s experiences of PV solar technology and their
perceptions regarding its sustainability. And also this primary research will
help in collecting information from the households which can help in developing
a better understanding regarding the factors affecting the adoption and
sustainability of this technology. 3.3.1. Study Area                               For this study, six muhallas from village Regi
of District Peshawar have been selected namely Aftazei, Yousfzei, kandery,
Rokizei, Mullazei and Umanzei.
Many residents of these muhallas are relying on solar energy for meeting their
energy needs and thus can provide the required information for which this
research is designed.3.4. SAMPLING METHOD AND
SAMPLE SIZEThe data will be collected through
cluster random sampling procedure. In the first stage of sampling, the area
will be divided into different clusters. For this purpose, here consider
muhallasas clusters. Then 6 clusters will be selected randomly from all 10
clusters. In the second stage, around 50 subjects (households) will be selected
from each cluster (sample size 300). For the collection of data, initially, a
questionnaire will be developed. Then, the data will be collected through this
the questionnaire by surveying these six muhallas. The purpose of this sampling method is to
investigate views and experience of people regarding the solar electrification
and to gauge the factors affecting adoption and sustainability
of solar electrification.3.5. DATA COLLECTION AND DATA
ANALYSISAs objective of this study is to analyze the
factors affecting the adoption and sustainability of solar electrification, questionnaire was designed in a way that meaningful
information could be gathered from the user. For data processing and analysis,
descriptive statistical analysis method has been applied. Descriptive  statistical 
analysis  is  the 
method which includes  different
analysis  of statistical  data 
and its graph presentation to understand it easily. Primary
data have been collected through a general household survey method
using structured questionnaire based on selected dependent variable and
independent variables. The independent variables are  price, sustainability, load shedding, level
of knowledge and awareness, level of Household income, pollution, No. of
substitutes available, weather and durability of solar system. While dependent
variable is adoption and sustainability of solar energy is chosen for the aim of
the study. After data collection, the
questionnaires were systematically coded and data was entered in SPSS for
statistical analysis and binary logistic regression statistical technique has
been use by the help STATA. After detailed description of data,
conclusions were drawn. Descriptive statistics has been used to show the
results. For modelling, logistic regression is
used in its place of ordinary least-square regression model. This is for the
reason that that one of the important limitations of ordinary least-square
regression is that it cannot deal with dichotomous and discrete (categorical)
variables. Logistic regression is a particular case of generalized linear model
which is used when the outcome variable is dichotomous or categorical and the independent
variables are of any types (discrete, categorical, continuous or a mix of
all).The generalized linear model (GLM) is an extension of the classical linear
model. Generalized linear models provide a unified technique to perform
regression analysis of continuous, count or dichotomous data set. 3.5.1. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGYDifferent approaches are available for
statistical modelling. Since the response variable in our study is binary in
nature i.e. the presence and absence of solar system, therefore, we pick the
binary logistic regression.The probability distribution function of
the dependent variable y is given by

 

 

                                               

 

The logistic regression model is given as

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A logit link transformation is used to
transform equations which equate the linear combination of the covariates to logit
link function. The link function is also called the logit, which is simply the
log of odds. The logit is given in equation

 

3.5.2. EMPIRICAL MODELHere adoption of solar energy is denoted by ASE and sustainability by S price of solar energy by P, Level of
Household income by
HY, load shedding by LS, level
of knowledge and awareness by KA, pollution by Pol,
Weather by W,
and No. of substitutes available by NSA and durability of solar technology by
D. While ?0,
?1, ?2, ?3, ?4
and ?5 are parameters and µ is residual term.3.6.
IMPACT ASSESSMENTIn this study, factors
affecting the adoption and sustainability of solar electrification would be
assessed. The following are the independent variable, dependent variables and
their indicators:

Variable-
Independent

Indicator

Price of solar
technology

·        
Initial 
installment cost
·        
Price of batteries
·        
Maintenance cost
·        
Monthly cost of solar and WAPDA electricity

Level of
Knowledge and
Awareness of
solar technology
 

·        
Access to Information on existence of solar
devices
·        
Informal and formal training on solar technology.                                                        

Level of
Income

·        
Regular level of income

Availability
of alternative
source
 
 

·        
Proximity Grid electricity
·        
Proximity to Firewood/ kerosene / Gas/generator

Sustainability

·        
Economic
sustainability
Initial Installation cost
Maintenance cost
·        
Environmental
sustainability
Reduced air pollution
·        
It fulfills the needs of households

Weather

·        
Sunny hours

Load shedding

·        
Hours of load
shedding of electricity

Dependent variable : Adoption of
Solar

·        
Households using solar energy.
 

 3.7.
POLICY RELEVANCE:This
study will attempt to find out if the PV Solar technology is sustainable and
can it be substituted with energy provided through conventional sources. The
energy policy of Pakistan has clearly stated the aspirations of policy makers
for extending the renewable infrastructure in the country. The findings of this
study will help in enlightening policymakers for extending off grid solar power
to other regions.3.8. SUMMARY

This Chapter shows in depth look at the research
methodology; a descriptive design was adopted. This presented an in depth study
into the mode of living of the planned intention group. The methodology contain
analysis and the capacity to obtain a good image of the knowledge and
awareness, income levels and the general attitude of the community towards
adopting solar technology for their use. The target population contains the
heads and independent members of the households as they were well thought-out
to be the decision makers in the majority homes. They find out how money will
be used and in what extent. They also find out what technology will be used for
the different functions that need energy at homes.